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Ethno-medicinal Plants Used by Gond Tribe of Bhanadehi, District Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh

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Rai, M. K., Pandey, A. K. and D. Acharya (2000): Ethno-medicinal Plants Used by Gond Tribe of Bhanadehi, District Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh. Journal of non-timber forest, 7(3/4): 237-241.

 

Ethno-medicinal Plants Used by Gond Tribe of Bhanadehi, District Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh

M K Rai1, A K Pandey2 , Deepak Acharya1

1Department of Botany, Danielson College, Chhindwara-480 001,      M. P., India

2Centre for Forestry Research and Human Resources Development, Nagpur Road, Chhindwara-480 001, M. P., India.

Abstract

Ethnomedicinal surveys on traditional uses of medicinal plants by Gond tribe of Bhanadehi, District Chhindwara were made during 1997 to 1998. In all 32 plants were reported which were used by Gond tribe and other village people in various ailments. Such plants include Acorus calamus, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Azadirachta indica, Berberis aristata, Butea frondosa, Caesalpinia bonducella, Calotropis procera, Cassia tora, Cissampelos pareira, Citrullus aromatica, Costus speciosus, Cocculus hirsutus, Cuscuta reflexa, Emblica officinalis, Mangifera indica, Moringa oleifera, Mucuna prurita, Ocimum sanctum, Plumbago zeylanica, Pterocarpus marsupium, Ruta graveolens, Semecarpus anacardium, Solanum anguivi, S. melongena var. incarnum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, T. bellerica, T. chebula, Thymus serphyllum, Tinospora cordifolia, Verbascum thepsus . The chemical constituents of the respective plants is also given in the present paper. So far, there is no report of ethnomedicinal plants from Bhanadehi thus representing the first report from the area.

Introduction

Chhindwara District is situated on Satpura plateau at 1550-3820 feet above the sea level. The District lies between 18 8'- 20 9' E. The arrangements of the plateau varies in altitude from 760-1030 mts. Bhanadehi is situated at Seoni-Chand road about 12 km away from Chhindwara. Gonds are the main inhabitants of the village. These villagers still practice herbal medicines. The knowledge of these medicines is age old. For them, use of herbs is the cheapest way for cure of various health disorders. So far, there is no Government clinic in the village.

A review of literature reveals that much work has been done on ethnomedicinal plants in India (Jain and Tarafdar, 1970; Sahu, 1982; Maheshwari et al., 1986; Rai 1987, 89; Jain, 1991; Negi et al., 1993; Singh et al., 1997). But still there are some tribal pockets which could be surveyed for the search of new traditional medicines. We report the ethnomedicinal plants of village Bhanadehi for the first time.

Methodology

Periodical surveys were made for search of new traditional herbal medicines in village Bhanadehi. The help of volunteers of National Service Scheme was also taken for conduction of interview and collection of medicinal plants used in different diseases. The village chief was interviewed and the local uses of enigmatic specimens were confirmed by more than two senior people having knowledge of local herbs. The plants were identified and the voucher specimens were deposited in Botany Department Danielson College, Chhindwara.

A review of literature on active principles present in these ethnomedicinal plants was also surveyed in order to check validity and authenticity of medicinal uses and also to establish possible rationale between uses and available data on these plants.

1. Acorus calamus Linn.

Local name: Bach

Family: Araceae

Use: The rhizome is used to cure stammering of children.

Chemical constituents

Root extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger (Comp. Physiol. Ecol. 1987, 12, 49; Chem. Abstr. 1987, 107, 151207 b.) (Z,Z) 4,7-Decadienal isolated from oil and synthesised (Prog. Essent. Oil Res., Proc. Int. Symp Essent. Oils, 16th 1986, 215; Chem. Abstr. 1987, 106, 72677 f). two new compounds (Z)3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) indene (I)-isolated from rhizomes and their structures elucidated and confirmed by synthesis.

2. Argemone mexicana Linn.

Local name: Pili Kateri

Family: Papaveraceae

Use: The root-powder is mixed with sugar and taken orally with water when affected with skin diseases.

Chemical constituents

Allocryptopine, berberine,(-)cheilanthifoline, chelerythrine, coptisine, cryptopine, dihydrosanguinarine, norchelerythrine, nor-sanguinarine, oxyhydrastinine, protopine, sanguinarine, (-) b-stylopine methohydroxide, 6-acetonyl-dihydrosanguinarine, (-)   a-tetrahydropalmatine methohydroxide, mexicanol and mexicanic acid have been reported. The flowers contain isorhamnein, isorham-netin-3-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3,7-diglucoside.

3. Asparagus racemosus Willd.

Local name: Naarbod

Family: Liliaceae

Use: root-powder is used to increase vigour and strength.

Chemical constituents

Clinical efficacy of root powder (12.0 g/day for six weeks) evaluated in patients with duodenal ulcer. In 75% cases, it relieved most of the symptoms (reduction in gastric acid response, endoscopic improvement.) It did not exhibit antacid activity; inhibited basal output by 48.0; histamine-induced maximum out put by 38.0 and alcohol-induced secretion by 32.0 % (J. Res. Ayurveda & Siddha 1986, 7, 91). Four glycosides-compound A, shatavarin I, shatavarin II and shatavarin IV- isolated from roots; structure of shatavarin IV elucidated.

4. Azadirachta indica Juss. syn. Melia azadirachta L.

Local name: Neem

Family: Meliaceae

Use: Seeds are used in skin diseases, and in rheumatism. Bark is useful in malarial fever. Dry fruits are used as tonic and stomachic. Tender twigs are used as tooth-brush.

Chemical constituents:

About 100 compounds, mostly triterpenoids of protolimonoids (proto-meliacins, limonoids or meliacins or tetranortriter-penoids),  tetranortriterpenoid-y-hydroxy butenolides, ring C seco-tetranortiter-penoids, a hexanortriterpenoid apart from a few nontriterpenoid constituents have been reported from various parts as detailed below:

Azadirachtin, azadirachtol, azadirachnol, deacetyl-azadirachtinol (3-tigloylazadirachtol), azadiradione, an isomer of epoxyazadiradione, 17-epi-and 17b-hydroxyazadiradione, azadirone, gedunin, 7-hydroxygedunin, melianone, nimbiol, nimboeinol (7-acetoxy-7-hydroxy-azadiradione), nimocin,7-deacetoxy-nimolicinol, nimolinone; nimbochalicin and nimbocetin; 21, 23, 24, 25-diepoxytriucall-7-en-21-ol salannin (fruits). Kernels yield about 40.0-48.9% of the oil (Oil of Margosa) and contain high amount of tocopherol, arachidic, linoleic, margosic, myristic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, azadirone, azadiradione, epoxyazadiradione (nimbinin) although their specific rotations differ widely, gedunin, desacetyl gedunin, meldenin, meliatriol, nimbin, nimbinene, 6-desacetyl nimbinene nimbidin nimbidionl, 6-O-acetyl nimbandiol, nimbidic acid, salannin, 3-desacetylalannin, salannol and its acetae, salannolide, vepinine, vilasinin, 1,3-diacetylvilasinin.

5. Berberis aristata Linn. DC.

Local name: Daru Haridra

Family: Berberidaceae

Use: used in inflammation. Root-bark extract is used to heal the ulcer.Chemical constituents

The plant contains barbering, oxyberberine, berbamine, aromoline, karachine, palmatine, oxyacanthine and taxilamine.

6. Butea frondosa Roxb.

Local name: Palaas

Family: Papilionaceae

Use: Seeds are used to cure ringworm. Petioles are chewed during heat in urination.

Chemical constituents

Flowers yield butin and its 7-glucoside (isocoreopsin), and 3-b-D-glucoside (monospermoside), butein (major glucoside), isomonospermoside, coreopsin, suphurein, palasitrin in addition to butrin and isobutrin; the chalcone and aurones are responsible for the bright colour. The gum from the bark (Butea gum) furnishes leucocyanidin and its tertramer (procyanidin), riboflavin and thiamine. Glycine, a glycoside and an aromatic hydroxy compound have been isolated from the roots. Apart from lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes, the occurrence of monospermin [1-N-acety1-2-oxo-4-methoxy-3H,5H-imidazole], d-lactone of n-heneicosanoic acid, (-) -palasonin and its methylester have been reported. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil is myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. The saponifiabe part of the oil contains b-sitosterol and its b-D-glucoside and a-amyrin. Some of them are common with the oil constituents of the flowers. Jalaric esters I and II and laccijalaric esters III and IV have been reported from the roots.

7. Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb.

Local name: Gatran

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Use: For the preparation of the powder for digestion.

Chemical constituents: Seeds yield L-y-ethylideneglutamic acid and amino acids. Fatty acid composition of the seed-oil is reported. a-,b-,y-,d-,e-and j-caesalpins, caesalpin-F and 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyhomoisoflavone (bounducelline) have been isolated form the seed kernels.

8. Calotropis procera R. Br.

Local name: Madaar

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Use: Used in boils, and also to remove the thorn from the body.

Chemical constituents: a-and b-Amyrins (also in latex, the latter in leaves, stem, root) an alkaline phosphatase, cyanidin-3-rhamnoglucoside, cycloart-23-en-3b, 25-diol, cyclosadol, multiflorenol, procesterol, quercetin-3-rutinoside (also from leaves, stem, latex, root) b-sitosterol (also in latex), b-sitost-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol (flowers); ascorbic acid, calactin, calotoxin, calotropagenin, calotropin (all except ascorbic acid also occur in latex), polysaccharide containing D-arabinose, D-glucose, D-glucosamine and L-rhamnose, 3-proteinase (leaves) calotropain (protease), a-calotropeol, 3-epimoretenol, gigantin, giganteol, isogiganteol, a-lactuceryl acetate, a-lactuceryl isovalerate, lupeol, proceroside, proceragenin (cardenolide), syriogenin, taraxast-20(30)-en-3-(4-methyl-3-pentenoate), 3-thiazoline cardenolide, uscharidin, uscharin, uzarigenin, voruscharin (latex); benzolisolineolone, nemzoyllineolone, long-chain fatty acids, C(18) isoursane (root-bark); calactinic acid, choline and O-pyrocatechuic acid, b-sitosterol, taraxasterol, its j-isomer, taraxasteryl isovalerate, taraxasteryl acetate also occur in th plant.

9. Cassia tora Linn.

Local name: Titi

Family: Fabaceae

Use: Powder of the the dry seeds is used in Asthma. The powder is mixed with Gud (2-3-year old) and about 7 small balls are prepared. One ball is taken every day with water upto 7 days.

Chemical constituents: Flowers contain kaempferol glucoside. Seeds and leaves contain amino acids, fatty acids, aloe-emodin, chrysomphanol, emodin, rhein and sitosterol. Myricyl alsohol, chrysophanic acid and its 9-anthrone derivative, 8-hydroxy-3methylanthraquinone-1-b-gentiobioside, a naphtho-a-pyrone, physcion, rubrafusarin and its 6b-gentiobioside and toralactone, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone, leucopelargonidin-3-o-a-L-rhamnopyranoside and b-sitosterol were isolated from the roots.

10. Cissampelos pariera L.

Local name: Karu Pahad

Family: Menispermaceae

Use: The root of the plant is used in snake bite.

Chemical constituents

The root is rich in alkaloids, viz., hayatine (±-curine), hayatinine, hayatidine and other bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid. In addition, some other non-nitrogenous components, e.g. quercitol and sterol, have been isolated.

11. Citrullus aromatica Salisb.

Local name: Kachariya

Family: Cucurbitaceae

Use: The fruits are used in stomach troubles.

Chemical constituents

Three new sesquiterpenes-isozedoarondiol, methylzedoarondiol and neocurdione-isolated along with germacrone, (4S, 5S) germacrone-4,5 epoxide, curdione, dehydro-curdione, procurcumenol, zedoarondiol and curcumenone; structures of new compounds elucidated; absolute structure of zedoarondiol determined by X-ray analysis (Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1987, 35, 53, tennen Yuki Kagobutsu Toronkai Koen Yoshishu, 1987, 29, 528, Chem. Abstr. 1988, 109, 190589p); detection of germacrene D, curzerene, curzerenone, germacrone, xanthorrhizol, curcuphenol and hydroxyisogermafurenolide in essential oil by GC. flowers (Geobios 1988, 15, 32; Chem. Abstr. 1988, 109, 89702 v); new cucurbitacin isolated from fruits of SriLankan plant and characterised; cucurbitacine I and J also isolated (Phytochemistry 1988, 27, 3225); isolation and characterisation of a new glycoside as 2-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27-hexanorcucurbitacin I (I); 2-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcucur-bitacin I, 2-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin E and 2-O-b-D-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin L also isolated (Phytochemistry 1989, 28, 1268).

12. Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith

Local name: Keokanda

Family: Zingiberaceae

Use: Used in skin and respiratory diseases.

Chemical constituents

Two new quinones-dihydrophytylplastoquinone and its 6-methyl derivative-along with a-tocopherolquinone and 5a-stigmast-9(11)en-3b-ol isolated from seeds and their structures elucidated (Phytochemistry 1984, 23, 1725); methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate and tertracosanyl octadecanoate isolated from seeds (Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 1984, 46, 150); a tocopherol isolated from seeds and identified as G2-tocopherol (Chem. Ind. 1985, 56); five new compounds-tetradecyl 13-methylpentadecanoate, tetradecyl 11-methyltridecanoate, 14-oxotricosanoic acid, 14-oxoheptacosanoic acid and 15-oxooctacosanoic acid- isolated from rhizomes and characterised (Phytochemistry 1986, 25, 1899); seed oil (6.0%) consisted of palmitic (55.97) oleic (23.75%), linoleic stearic myristic and lauric acids. Defatted seeds contained diosgenin, glucose, galactose and rhamnose (Indian for. 1986, 112, 135; Chem. Abstr. 1987, 106, 99407 e); 31-norcycloartanone, cycloartanol, cycloartenol and cyclolaudenol isolated from roots (Planta Med. 1988, 54, 268); methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2E propenoate isolated from rhizomes.

13. Cocculus hirsutus Diels. Syn. C. Villosus. DC.

Local name: Jal Jamani

Family: Menispermaceae

Use: The leaves are useful to cure leucorrhea.

Chemical constituents

Trilobine, isotrilobine, coclaurine, magnoflorine, hirsudiol, jamtine N-oxide, chohirsine, syringaresinol, protoquercitol, nonacosam-10-ol and b-sitosterol are reported.

14. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

Local name: Amarbel

Family: Convolvulaceae

Use: The extract of the plant is applied to get rid of dandruff.

Chemical constituents

D-Mannitol, kaempferol, myricetin and b-sitosterol ( berries of the plant parasitic on Melia azadirachta); amarbelin (pigment), cuscutin; cerotic linolenic, linolic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids; phytosterol (seeds); abscisic acid (leaves); dulcitol, luteolin and its glycoside, quercetin, cuscutin (stem); amino acids, cusculatin, cuscutin are reported from the plant. Isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside and lycopene from fresh plant (parasitic on Wrightia tinctoria); mangiferin when parasitic on Mangifera indica; D-mannitol when parasitic on Santalu album; luteolin when parasitic on Glycosmis pentaphylla.

15. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.

Local name: Aonla

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Use: To cure dandruff.

Chemical constituents

A good source of vitamin C; carotene, nicotinic acid, riboflavine, D-glucose, D-fructose, myoinositol and a pectin with D-galacturonic acid, D-arabinosyl, D-xylosyl, L-rhamnosyl, D-glucosyl, D-mannosyl and D-galactosyl residues; embicol, mucic and phyllemblic acids, phyllembin and fatty acids (seed oil); leucodelphinidin, procyanidin, 3-O-gallated prodelphinidin and tannin (bark); ellagic acid, lupeol, oleanolic aldehyde and O-acetyl oleanolic acid from root.

16. Mangifera indica Linn.

Local name: Aam

Family: Anacardiaceae

Use: The leaves are used in erruptions of the tongue.

Chemical constituents

Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-2-glucopyranoside), amino acids, gallotannin, gallic and m-digallic acids, ethylgallate, isoquercetin, quercetin and b-sitosterol common in various parts;(+) and (±)-epicatechin, b-carotene and a-xanthophyll; citric, ellagic, malic and m-trigallic acids, b-glucogallin, meso-inositol, polysaccharides identified as a highly branched arabinan, (1®4) linked galactouronan and glucan, riboflavin and vitamin C (fruits); citronellal, diterpene, geraniol, limonene, mangiferol, mangiferone, nerol, nerylacetate, a-phellandrene, a- and b-pinene, tannin (panicles, leaves); methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, isobutyl and amyl alcohols (leaf oil); aliphatic and aromatic esters of gallic acid, D-arabinose, glucose (also in fruits) and galactose (flowers); isoamyl alcohol, a-and b-pinenes, myrcene limonene and fenchone (pericarp oil); methyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl and isoamyl alcohols (seed oil).

17. Moringa oleifera Lam.  

Local name: Sahjan

Family: Moringaceae

Use: The juice of the leaves is used in the eye diseases.

Chemical constituents

Leaves, flowers and fruits of the plant contain minerals, vitamins and amino acids. The pods and leaves are rich source of vitaminC. The plant contains4-hydroxymellein, vanilin, b-sitosterol, octacosanoic acid, moringine, moringinine, bayrenol, indole acetic acid, indole acetonitrile, benzylisothiocyanate, pteregospermine and carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol occur in the flowwers. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil, polysaccharide and protein components of the gum exudate are also reported.

18. Mucuna prurita Hook. Syn. M. pruriens (L.) DC.

Local name: Kimaach

Family: Papilionaceae

Use: Seeds are used as aphrodisiac.

Chemical constituents

Seeds yield 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-dopa), mucunine, mucunadine, prurienine, prurieninine, tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Seed oil contains stearic, palmitic, myristic, arachidic, oleic, linoleic acids and a sterol. Seed meal hydrolysate gives tryptophan, cystine and methionine. The trichomes of the pods contains only 5-hydroxytryptamine whereas the leaves show the presence of 6-methoxyharman. N,N-dimethyltryptamine, its nb-oxide, bufotenine, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine, 5-oxy-indole-3-alkylamines, a b-carboline, L-tyrosine formyl tyrosine, formyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalnine, C18-unsaturated acid and cis-12-13-epoxyoctadec trans-9-enoic acid and cis-12, 13-epoxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic (vernolic) acids are reported from different parts of the plant. Choline has been obtained from all parts of the plant.

19. Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Local name: Tulsi

Family: Labiateae

Use: The leaves are used against skin diseases.

Chemical constituents

Leaves and flowers contained 0.075 and 0.095% of oil respectively; detection of cadinene, 1, 8-cineole, eugenol, limonene and methylchavicol in leaf oil and cadinene, b-caryophyllene eugenol and humulene in flower oil by GLC (Top Flavour Res. Proc. Int. Conf. 1985, 277; Chem. Abstr. 1986, 104, 39497h;) leaves afforded b-carotene and ursolic acid (Fitoterapia 1987, 58, 286); determination of caryophyllene (37.63), bornylacetate (23.17) and eugenol (21.24%) in essential oil.

20. Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

Local name: Chitawar

Family: Plumbaginaceae

Use: The seeds are powdered and applied on boils and carbuncles.

Chemical constituents

Protein in pollen grains; volatile oil form leaves and stem; 1,2-dihydro-1(S),5,5-trihydroxy-2-3(R)-dimethyl-2(R)-propyl-3,8-bisnaphthalene-1,4,4-trione (chitranone, also in root), a-and b-amyrins, lupeol, taraxasterol, j-taraxasterol (aerial parts); 2-methyl-5-hyxroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin, also in the root); fructose, glucose invertase and protease (root-bark); 3,3-bisplumbagin, 3-chloroplumbagin, chitranone (binaphthoquinone), droserone, elliptinone, isozeylinone, isozeylanone, zeylanone and zeylinone, maritone, methylene-3,3-diplumbagin, 2-methylnaphthazarin, plumbazeylanone; 5b,11a, 12, 12a-tetrahydro-1,7-dihydroxy-5b-(8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl)5a,12a-dimethyl-5aH-dibenzo [b,h] fluorene-5,13:6,11-diquinone (a trimer of plumbagin); catechol tannin (root); amino acids; b-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-butyric acid (plumbagic acid), vanillic acid; 1,2(3)-tetrahydro-33-bisplumbagin, isoshianolone, dihydrosterone and b-sitosterol alos isolated form the plant.

21. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

Local name: Beeja

Family: Fabaceae

Use: The wood of the plant is used in diabetes.

Chemical constituents

The plant contains protein, pentosan and mucilage. Pterosupin, pseudobaptigenin. liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, garbanzol, 5-de-oxykaempferol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, selin-4-(15)-en-1b,11 diol, b-eudesmol, erythrodirol-3-monoacetate, pterostilbene,l-epicatechin, marsupol, carpusin, propterol, propterol B, marsupinol, 5,4-dimethoxy-8-methylisoflavone-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside, retusin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, irisolidone-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-O-a-L-rhamnopyranoside, marsupin (2S)-7-hydroxy-7-hydroxyflavanone, 7,4-dihydroxyflavone, 3,7,4-trihydroxyflavone, (2R)-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-acetic acid, 4,2, 4-trihydroxy-=chalcone, oleanolic acid and 7-hydroxy 5, 4-dimethoxy-8-methlisoflavone-7-rhamnoside have been obtained mainly from the heartwood and root. The gum-kino (from the bark) provides a non-glucosidal tannin, kinotannic acid, kinoin (C28H24O12) and kino-red (C28H22O11) in addition to small quantities of catechol (pyrocatechin), protocatechuic a cid, resin, pectin and gallic acid.

22. Ruta graveolens L.

Local name: Shitab

Family: Rutaceae

Use: The juice of leaves is used as carminative.

Chemical constituents

It (French Oil) has the following ranges of values :d15°, 0.844;[a]D,-0.7° to + 2.2°;nD20°, 1.430-1.437; congeal.p., 5.8-10.5° (usually>70); sol. in 1.5-3.0 vol. of 70 per cent alcohol. The oil consists predominantly of methyl nonyl ketone (80-90%) with a small amount of methyl heptyl ketone. Other constituents present are:l-a-pinene, l-limonene, cineole, methyl-n-heptyl carbinol and methyl-n-nonyl carbinol (present up to 10% partly free and partly as acetates), ethyl valerate, methyl salicylate and methyl anthranilate and also probably a base with a quinoline-like odour. The higher the ketone content of the oil, the better is its quality. The oil is sometimes adulterated with turpentine and petroleum.

23. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.

Local name: Bhilwa

Family: Anacardiaceae

Use: The oil of seeds is applied on the painful spot.

Chemical constituents

Nicotinic acid, riboflavine, thiamine and the essential amino acids-arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phyenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine (fruits); anacardic aicd, aromatic amines, bhilawanol (1-pentadeca-s8-enyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzene) and 1-pentadeca-s7,10-dienyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzene, being the major components of more than seen closely related aromatic carboxylic acids (also from nutshell); biflavanoids A, B and C, latter two characterised as 3,8-binaringenin and 3,8-biliquiritigenin; tertrahydrobustaflavone, (nutshell); linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids (kernel oil); amentoflavone (leaves); biflavanones A1 and A2 also reported.

24. Solanum anguivi Lam.

Local name:

Family: Solanaceae

Use: Used in skin diseases.

Chemical constituents

Diosgenin, lnosterol, solamargin, solasodin, solasonin, b-sitosterol and its glucoside (fruits, flowers, leaves, stem, root); gitogenin, tigogenin, tomatidenol (fruits, leaves, root); maltase, melibiase, saccharase (fruits); arachidiolein, arachidolinolin, arachidooleolinolin, dioleolinolin, oleodilinolin, palmitodilinolin, palmitodiolein, palmitooleolinolin,stearodilinolin, stearodiolein, stearooleolinolin trilinolin; carpesterol and sitosterol (seed-oil); arachidic, lauric, linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids (leaf-oil); dioscin, methyl protodioscin, protodioscin, methyly protoprosapogenin A7 dioscin; deissidine, jurjubidine, leptinidine, neotigogenin , Paniculidine, solanidine, solacongestine, soladulcidine, solafloridine, solaquitidine, tomatidine and yamogenin also occur in the plant.

25. Solanum melongena Linn. var. incanum

Local name: Jungli Baigan

Family: Solanaceae

Use: The root-powder is used in stomach pain.

Chemical constituents

Arginine, aspartic acid, Y-aminobutyric acid, histidine, Y-hydroxyglutamic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, pipecolic acid, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine; choline, nicotinic acid, riboflavin, vitamins A and C; fructose, glucose, sucerose; anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-bioside (nasunin), monohydroxylycopene, lycoxanthin; b-amino-4-ethyglyoxaline; caffeic, chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, hydroxycinnamic and derivatices, oxalic acid; pectins; scopoletin, trigonelline, solasodine (fruits); arachidic, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids; diosgenin (also in root-bark), tigogenin, b-amyrin citrostadienol, cycloartanol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, 31-norcycloartanol, cycloratenol, 31-norcycloartenol, cycloeucalenol, daturaolone, daturadiol, lupeol; 4a-methlcholesta-8-enol, 4a,24-dimethlcholesta-7,24-dienol, 4a-methl-24-ethylcholesta-7,24-dienol, 4a-14a,24-trimethylcholesta-8,,24-dienol, gramisterol, lanost-8-en-3b-ol, 24-methylene-lanost-8-en-3b-ol,31-norlanost-9(11)-enol, 24-methyl-31-norlanost-9(11)-enol, lanosterol, lophenol and its 24(R)-ethyl and 24-methl derivatices, obtusifoliol (seeds); chlorogenic, hydrocaffeic, protocatechuic and trans-caffeic acids,4-ethylcatechol (leaves); p-aminobenzaldehyde, ethylcaffeate, trans-ferulic acid, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine, vanillin; isoscopoletin (root); n-alkanes, arginine glycoside phytoalexin (lubimin), imidazoylethylamine; neotigogenin, solanina solasonin; b-sitosterol, stigmasterol also isolated from the plant.

26. Syzygium cumini L. (Skeils.) syn. Eugenia jambolana Lamk.

Local name: Jamun

Family: Myrtaceae

Use: Seed-powder is useful in diarrhoea, dysentry and diabetes. Bark is used for mouth washes.

Chemical constituents

The edible pulp forms c. 75 per cent of the whole fruit. Analysis of the edible part gave the following values (g./100g. edible pulp) : moisture, 83.7; protein, 0.7; fat, 0.3; crude fibre, 0.9; other carbohydrates, 14.0; and dash, 0.4. The mineral constituents reported to be present (mg/100g. of edible pulp) are : Ca, 15; mg, 35; P, 15 (phytin P,2); Fe, 1.2 (ionisable Fe, 0.1); Na, 26.2; K, 55; Cu, 0.23; S, 13; and Cl, 8. The vitamins present (in 100 g. edible pulp) are: vitamin A, 80 I.U.; thiamine; 0.03 mg. riboflavin, 0.01 mg. nicotinic acid, 0.2 mg. vitamin C, 18 mg. choline, 7 Mg. and folic acid 3 mg.

27. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) W. & A. Syn. Terminalia glabra W. & A.

Local name: Arjun, Kahuaa

Family: Combretaceae

Use: The decoction of the bark is used as tea in heart troubles. The bark gives strength to the heart. Good stomachic.

Chemical constituents

Alicyclic and amino acids and polyols (fruit, leaves, bark, wood); arachidic stearate, cerasidin, hentriacontane, myristyl oleate; mannitol; b-sitosterol, friedelin (also from bark); methyl oleanolate; ellagic and gallic acids (also from root); arjunic acid (also from root-bark); 5,7,2,4-tetramethoxyflavone (arjunone) and tannin from the fruits; arjunetin, b-D-glucopyranosy1-2a, 3b, 19a-trihydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-en-28-oate-arjunoside III (also from root-bark); baicalein, 6,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (arjunolone), 2a-3b, 19a-trihydroxy-olean-12-en-30-oic and 2a-,3b,19a,23-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, arjunolic acid and its saponin, arjunic acid-3-O-b-D-galactoside (arjunosideI), arjunic acid 3-O-b-D-gluco-pyranosyl®a-L-2-deoxyrhamnopyranoside (arjunosideII), arjunic acid-3-O-a-L(-)-rhamnoside (arjunosideIV) and 8-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (root-bark); 3b, 13b-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, leucocyanidin (root); (+)-leucodelphinidin from wood.

28. Terminalia bellerica Roxb.

Local name: Beheda

Family: Combritaceae

Use: Epicarp of fruit mixed with Harra is useful in digestion.Seeds mixed with Buchammia seeds are taken in eruption of mouth.

Chemical constituents

Chebulagic acid, ellagic acid (also from bark, eartwood) and its ethyl ester, gallic acid (also from seed-coat); fructose, galactose, glucose and its galloyl derivative, mannitol and thamnose and b-sitosterol isolated from the fruits.

29. Terminalia chebula Retz.

Local name: Harra

Family: Combritaceae

Use: Used for the preparation of digestive powder.

Chemical constituents

Anthraquinone glycoside, chebulinic acid, tannic acid, terchebin, vitamin C (fruits); arachidic behenic linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids (fruit kernels); chebulin occurs in the flowers.

30. Thymus serphyllum Linn.

Local name: Jungli ajwayan

Family: Labiateae

Use: In skin diseases.

Chemical constituents

The oil is a pale-yellow liquid, with an agreeable odour, reminiscent of thyme, lemon and geranium. A sample of oil distilled from wild herb growing in Punjab and Kashmir (Yield 0.5%), had ddddthe following physico-chemical characteristics : sp. gr. 0.9269; []- 4.8, n 30° D; 1.4968; phenolic content (mainly carvacrol) 52.7%. In addition to carvacrol (isomer of thymol) the oil contained p-cymene (17%) y-terpinene and other terpenes (8%), terpenic alcohols (5%) and zingiberene and other sesquiterpenes (4%). The phenolic content of oil distilled in Calabria was found to be much lower (24%).

31. Tinospora cordifolia (Lour.) Miers.

Local name: Gurvail

Family: Menispermaceae

Use: Juice with sugar is good after malarial and typhoid fever.

Chemical constituents

The plant contains tinosporin, columbin, chasmanthin, palmarin, berberine, tinosporon, tinosporic acid, tinosporol, giloin, giloinisin, substituted pyrrolidine, a diterpenoid furanolactone, 18-norclerodane diterpene-O-glucoside and aryltetrahydrofuranolignan, octacosanol, nonacosan-15-one and b-sitosterol.

32. Verbascum thapsus Linn.

Local name: Gidad Tambakhu

Family: Scropularaceae

Use: Skin diseases

Chemical constituents

The seeds on extraction with petroleum-ether, yield 11.6 per cent of a fat. The contains esters of the following fatty acids: stearic, 16.4; palmitic, 30.96; oleic, 29.2; and linoleic, 4.8%. The unsaponifiable matter contains b-sitosterol and a non-steroidal, yellow substance (Pande & Tiwari, J. oil technol. Ass. India, 1960, 16, 5).The roots are employed as febrifuge. They yield a number of oligosaccharides; heptaose, octaose, nonaose and verbascose. Aucubin and catalpol are reported from the roots.

Results and discussion

The survey provides an evidence that the Gond tribe of Bhanadehi uses about 32 plants in various ailments. The tribal people depend totally on herbally medicines of the suburbs as there is no clinic in the village. The plants are generally used as stomach disorders, skin diseases, aphrodisiacs, fever, tonic, ulcer, asthma, snake-bite, respiratory diseases, leucorrhoea, dandruff, eye-diseases and diabetes. There is need of training on cultivation and conservation of medicinal plants. Only plants growing in sandy soils and require less water can be selected for cultivation since the local soil is sandy and there is scarcity of water in the village. There is a greater need to develop a garden of medicinal plants of the area. The tribal people can also be encouraged to take up this job as an income generation activity.

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Professor S A Brown, Principal, Danielson College, Chhindwara, M.P. for encouragement.

References

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